## Lectures

### Introduction and course logistics

Outline:- introduction
- read Course logistics

### Geospatial data introduction

Outline:- mapping natural phenomena, concept of continuous fields and discrete sampling
- on-ground/in-situ, airborne, satellite, and lidar data acquisition
- projections, coordinate transformations, georeferencing

- Cartographical Map Projections
- Introduction to Open Source for Geospatial Analysis and Modeling (material under development)
- How Open Source Geospatial Development Works (recording from Geospatial Forum available at NCSU)
- Let the four freedoms paradigm apply to ecology (one page letter in TREE)
- Open Source Initiative: FAQ
- Notes on WGS84 and NAD83 difference

### Geospatial data models

Outline:- raster and vector data models
- raster-vector conversions and resampling
- geospatial formats, conversions, geospatial data abstraction library
- data repositories, metadata

- On-line geospatial data viewers and repositories
- Links to additional material on resampling
- Brief introduction to GRASS GIS Temporal Framework which contains a lot of general notes about spatio-temporal data

### Data display and visualization

Outline:- display of continuous and discrete data, use of color, shading, symbols to extract the spatial pattern and relationships
- 3D visualization: multiple surfaces and volumes, 3D vector objects
- visualization for data analysis (lighting, zscaling, transparency, cutting planes, animations)
- Sharing data on-line

- Lecture slides
- Lecture Display Raster and Vector
- Lecture Display Color
- Lecture 3D visualization
- Lecture 3D animation

- Dynamic GIS (html slides)
- Relief shading
- ColorBrewer
- Tangible Landscape (NCSU GeoForAll Lab project)
- Dynamic and wrap-around visualizations

### Geospatial Analysis: Global, zonal and focal operations, map algebra

Outline:- global and zonal statistics
- neighborhood (focal) operations
- raster map algebra
- expressions, operators, functions and variables
- basic calculations, integer and floating point data
- "if" conditions, handling NULLs and creating masks

- raster map patching and overlay
- raster map reclassification and rescaling

### Geospatial Analysis: buffers, cost surfaces, least cost path

Outline:- measuring distance, proximity operators
- point, line, and area buffers
- cost surfaces, least cost path

- Lecture Slides used in the video
- Lecture Slides with updates
- Lecture Measuring distance
- Lecture Buffers
- Lecture Cost surfaces

- Example feature extraction using least cost path
- Additional material on least cost path analysis in both GRASS GIS and ArcGIS from Carleton University

The following lectures are about *Geomorphometry and modeling of processes*.

### Spatial interpolation and approximation: methods

Outline:- definitions, principles and applications
- selected methods and their properties
- influence of interpolation parameters

- Lecture slides (methods)
- Equations
- Equations for additional functions (see section 6.6.1-3,6.6.6)
- Lecture Interpolation Definitions
- Lecture Interpolation Methods

### Spatial interpolation and approximation: splines, point selection

Outline:- influence of spline interpolation parameters: tension/range and smoothing
- implementation - point selection techniques
- special cases: contours, profiles, anisotropy
- trivariate interpolation of volumes and topo-climatology
- evaluating interpolation accuracy, crossvalidation

- Lecture slides (splines, point selection)
- Lecture Interpolation Splines
- Lecture Interpolation Point selection

- Overview of interpolation methods (book chapter)
- Equations for additional functions (see section 6.6.4)

### Terrain modeling

Outline:- 3D mapping technologies: topography and bathymetry
- mathematical and digital terrain models
- point clouds, multiple return data, CLICK, LDART
- triangular irregular networks
- regular grid (raster), NED, SRTM, CRM
- isolines

- Lecture Slides used in the video
- Lecture Slides with updates
- Lecture Terrain Mapping
- Lecture Terrain Modeling
- Lecture Terrain Binning

### Spatial and temporal terrain analysis

Outline:- summary parameters: volumes, surface areas
- first and second order point parameters: general approach
- methods for slope, aspect and curvatures using polynomial and spline approximation
- combining parameters to map landforms and terrain features
- computing parameters from noisy data, accuracy and uncertainty, scale and level of detail
- raster time series analysis, quantification of coastal change

- Lecture Slides
- Lecture Topoanalysis Gradient parameters
- Lecture Topoanalysis Curvature parameters
- Lecture Topoanalysis Time Series

- Landscape dynamics from lidar: Slides and Keynote Video (56 minutes) from Geomorphometry 2011 conference
- Jockey's Ridge Slides (ongoing research project on coastal landscape dynamics)

### Viewshed, solar energy potential analysis

Outline:- line of sight, viewshed and cumulative viewshed: principle and applications
- solar radiation: components and dynamics
- solar radiation in complex terrain, cast shadows
- cumulative solar irradiation, solar energy potential

### Flow tracing, watershed analysis

Outline:- cumulative terrain parameters based on flow tracing: definitions and general approach (flow path length, flow accumulation, stream networks, watershed boundaries, ridge lines)
- methods for computing flow direction (D8, Dinf), flow tracing (SFD, MFD, uniform, weighted)
- methods for flow tracing through depressions and flat areas (filling, carving, hybrid, least cost path)

### Modeling Geospatial Processes: Hydrologic and erosion modeling

Outline:- spatially explicit modeling: principles and applications, role of GIS
- geospatial aspects of models: spatially averaged and distributed models
- general approaches and methods: empirical and physics based components of models
- steady state, continuous time and dynamic models and related modeling tools
- spatial hydrologic modeling: processes and methods

- Lecture slides: Geospatial modeling and hydrology
- Lecture Geospatial Modeling
- Lecture Geospatial Hydrologic Modeling

### Modeling Geospatial Processes: Erosion modeling

Outline:- spatial modeling of erosion, sediment transport and landscape evolution
- deriving input parameters, analysis and visualization of modeling results
- simulating impact of landuse and climate change

- Lecture slides: Erosion modeling
- Lecture Geospatial Erosion Modeling
- Lecture Geospatial Erosion Modeling applications

- Soil erosion and deposition modeling tutorial (material under development)
- Erosion modeling tutorial (old but useful document)